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Peripheral Giant-cell Granuloma Associated with Peri-implant Tissues

Michael M. Bornstein

Giant-cell granulomas (GCG) of the jaws are benign reactive lesions of unknown etiology, unrelated to giant-cell tumors (osteoclastomas), which are defined as benign but locally destructive and aggressive neoplasms (Jundt and coworkers 2005). Depending on their localization at the initial diagnosis, GCG are dived into central (CGCG) and peripheral (PGCG) types. CGCGs occur within the jawbones and appear as unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesions. The incidence in the general population is very low. They are more commonly found in the mandible, mainly in children and young adults—patients are generally younger than 30 years—and have a greater incidence in females (Heithersay and coworkers 2002). The clinical behavior of CGCGs varies from slowly growing asymptomatic swellings to aggressive lesions that may result in pain, cortical perforation of the affected jaw site, and root resorption (de Lange and coworkers 2007).

General information

Case Type Extended Space
Jaw Mandible
Area Anterior|Posterior
# of Teeth 10
# of Implants 5
Type of Implants One-Piece
Attachment One-Piece
Bone Augmentation No
Augmentation Materials -
Guided Surgery No
Soft Tissue Grafting None
Abutment Type Standard
Prosthesis Type FDP

Esthetic Risk Assessment

Esthetic Risk Factors Low Medium High
Medical Status Healthy Compromised
Smoking Habit Non-smoker Light smoker (< 10 cigarettes per day) Heavy smoker (≥ 10 cigarettes per day)
Patient's Esthetic Expectations Low Medium High
Lip Line No exposure of papillae Exposure of papillae Full exposure of mucosa margin
Periodontal Phenotype Low-scalloped, thick Medium-scalloped, medium-thick High-scalloped, thin
Shape of Tooth Crowns Rectangular Triangular
Infection at Implant Site None Chronic Acute
Bone Level at Adjacent Teeth ≤ 5 mm to contact point 5.5 to 6.5 mm to contact point > 7 mm to contact point
Prosthodontic Status of Neighboring Teeth Virgin Restored
Width of Edentulous Span 1 tooth (≥ 7 mm) 1 tooth (< 7 mm) 2 teeth or more
Soft Tissue Anatomy Intact Defective
Bone Volume Horizontally and vertically sufficient Horizontally deficient Deficient vertically or deficient vertically AND horizontally
  • * General SAC assessment modifiers that are also part of the ERA. To avoid redundancy they are listed in this section even if no complete ERA has been made.

  • ** Not applicable to the ERA of immediate placement cases and replaced by "Socket Integrity" listed below under "Surgical SAC Classification". For all other placement types this value is a classification determinant and listed here even if no complete ERA has been made.

Surgical SAC classification

SAC Level Advanced
Defining Characteristics More than three missing teeth to be replaced with an implant-borne prosthesis or prostheses
Modality -
Placement Protocol Early or late implant placement
Tooth Site -
Socket Morphology -
Socket Integrity -
Bone Volume Horizontally and vertically sufficient
Anatomic Risk Low
Esthetic Risk Medium
Complexity Moderate
Risk of Complications Moderate

Prosthodontic SAC classification

SAC Level Advanced
Defining Characteristics Up to three missing teeth to be replaced with an implant-borne restoration or restorations
Loading Protocol Conventional or early
Retention Screw-retained, with splinted implants Screw-retained, with splinted implants
Maxillomandibular Relationship -
Mesio-Distal Space Adequate for the replacement of all missing teeth
Inter-Arch Distance -
Bruxism Absent
Esthetic Risk Medium
Provisional Implant-Supported Prosthesis Prosthodontic margin < 3 mm apical to mucosal crest Prosthodontic margin < 3 mm apical to mucosal crest
Interim Prosthesis during Healing - -
Occlusion/Articulation Harmonious
Occlusal Scheme/Issues -

Surgical SAC Modifiers

Periodontal Status History of periodontitis or genetic predisposition

Prosthodontic SAC Modifiers

Soft Tissue Contour and Volume Slightly compromised

General SAC Modifiers

Oral Hygiene and Compliance Sufficient
Access Adequate
Craniofacial/Skeletal Growth Completed

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